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作者信息   主题: 【卫国战争老兵回忆】伊万·谢列波夫(Ivan Shelepov)[12.18大幅度更新,各位看看!]13698

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  发表时间: 2009-12-1 21:47:47             

特别提示:本帖子在 2018-9-5 13:40:26 由用户 白瑞德 编辑过

http://www.iremember.ru/content/view/10/75/lang,en/
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A la Guerre Comme a la Guerre
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- Ivan Ignatievich, could you shortly tell about when you were enrolled and where you went?
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浪漫烛光 www.langmanzg.com

- I got my notice right in the middle of my workday. They called me to the office, I came, they gave me the notice, saying, get your things packed, Shelepov, tomorrow morning go to the address mentioned on the slip. That was August 1941. I do not remember the date...That was quite a surprise after the weekend.
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浪漫烛光 www.langmanzg.com

- 伊万·伊格纳季耶维奇,能简单说下你是什么时候入伍,接着又被送到了哪里?
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浪漫烛光 www.langmanzg.com

- 我是在上班时间接到的通知。他们把我叫到了办公室,把通知交到了我的手上:“谢列波夫,整理好自己的东西,明天去纸上写得地址报到”。那天是几号我想不起来了,只记得是1941年8月...这可真是周末过后意外的惊喜。
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浪漫烛光 www.langmanzg.com

- Where did you go then?
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浪漫烛光 www.langmanzg.com

- First I went to the military school. That time I lived in Kineshma, a small town near Ivanovo. What a landscape! Volga! They collected us all and took us to Ivanovo, to the school.
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浪漫烛光 www.langmanzg.com

- 你去哪了?
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浪漫烛光 www.langmanzg.com

- 我去了军事学校。当时我住在基涅什马,伊万诺沃附近的一座小城(华西列eI{dMo ^^`6Y+V4夫斯基元帅的家乡,译者注)。多么美丽的风景!伏尔加河!我们集中后被送到了伊万诺沃的学校。
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浪漫烛光 www.langmanzg.com

- It was the infantry academy, right?
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浪漫烛光 www.langmanzg.com

- Yeah. First we were told that the course would last three months, but the Germans apparently broke through, so after two weeks we all armed and went to the railway station by trucks. From the station we went directly to the front.
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浪漫烛光 www.langmanzg.com

- 是步兵学校,对吗?
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浪漫烛光 www.langmanzg.com

- 是的。最初我们被告之受训时间是三个月。但是德国人打断了我们的学习计划。二周后我们就全副武装坐着卡车到了火车站。我们上了火车直接开赴前线。
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浪漫烛光 www.langmanzg.com

- To what place?
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浪漫烛光 www.langmanzg.com

- Near Smolensk. Our 161st Rifle Division was incorporated in the 2nd Rifle Corps (The Corps had two rifle divisions - the 161st and the 100th. On September 18, 1941 both divisions became on of the first Guards units of the Red Army for its exemplary bravery, courage and stoicism - Valera). By the nightfall we received our dry tack, and in the morning our regiment assaulted the German positions without any artillery support.
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浪漫烛光 www.langmanzg.com

- 到了什么地方?
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浪漫烛光 www.langmanzg.com

- 斯摩棱斯克附近。我们第161步兵师隶属于第2步兵军(第2步兵军有二个步兵师,分别是第161和第100步兵师。1941年9月18日,因为作战勇猛顽强,这两个师成为第一批获得近卫称号的红军部队【分别是第4和第1近卫步兵师,译者注】)。$5l#_md -ae|傍晚我们吃点点面包干,清晨我们团在没有任何炮火准备的情况下对德国人的阵地发起了冲锋。
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浪漫烛光 www.langmanzg.com

- Was it only your regiment?
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浪漫烛光 www.langmanzg.com

- I don't know - it seemed like it was the whole division. It was quite a feeling - just an hour ago I was a civilian, and now I have a rifle in my hands. I knew war was scary, but I could never imagine such an all-embracing horror. I am wasting my time telling you about it - it is impossible to describe. The feeling was that you lived your whole life without any past or future. For some time I could not even move from shock, I swear! Of course, we were warned that at the dawn we would attack. The company commanders walked around and warned us. But it all happened in a very strange way. I do not remember that fight in detail. I don't know why - some of the engagements stand in my memory as if they happened yesterday, but my first battle experiences are very vague. I always confuse them.
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浪漫烛光 www.langmanzg.com

- 是不是只有你们团?
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浪漫烛光 www.langmanzg.com

- 我不知道。或许是整个师一起投入了进攻。这种感觉很奇怪——一个小时前我还是平民,现在却成为了一个手握步枪的战士。我知道战争是是让人害怕的,可是我永远也想不到竟是这样恐怖之极。我在这里跟你说这个纯属是浪费时间,tIz*PfgcoK:,这是无法形容的恐怖。那种感觉就好像人生既想不起过去,也看不到未来一样。有时候我甚至会被吓得动弹不得,我发誓这是真的!当然我们已经知道部队在黎明时分会发起进攻。连长不断的来回巡视。一切都以一种很陌生的方式发生着。对这场战斗的细节我记不太清了。我也不知道这是为什么,之后发生的一些战斗画面清晰得印在我的脑子里就好象是昨天发生的一样,但是对第一场战斗的印象却非常模糊。我总是把它们混淆在一起。
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浪漫烛光 www.langmanzg.com

Squads stayed together in shallow trenches. We covered ourselves with branches so that the Germans would not spot us. I thought that there will be a cry "Forward!", we would shout "Hurra!" and attack. Everything was quite different though. Our company commander told us quietly "Lets go, guys!" and climbed on to the parapet. I did the same. I followed him purely automatically, not realizing, what I was doing. We quietly stood up, and just walked forward. We did not even run - just walked. No "Hurra!", no noise, no shouting. We just stood up and went ahead. It was still dark, there was a fog over the field. It was a dead silence around - just quiet rattling of our weapons. I do not remember how, but the scene changed, and it turned out that they were firing like crazy at us. First rifles, then two machine-guns. Or was it machine-guns right away? Damn it - don't remember. Then we all ran, bending, I ran behind a guy, I don't know his name. From the whole assault I only remember his back with a bag-pack. I don't remember anything else.
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浪漫烛光 www.langmanzg.com

各班都呆在浅战壕里。为了不被德国人发现我们用树枝伪装。我觉得在一声“前进!”的命令后,我们就要高喊着“乌拉”开始冲锋。可实际上完全不是这么回事。我们连长轻声的说了句“伙计们,跟着我”就翻出来了胸墙,我紧跟其后,就这么木然地跟在他的后面。没人喊“乌拉”,没人说话,没有枪声,我们平静得站起来,开始往前走。是的,我们没有跑只是走。周围一片漆黑,整个战场完全笼罩在迷雾之中,死一样的寂静,只听得到武器和身体摩擦发出的声音。我不记得是怎么回事,场面迅疾改变了,他们好像疯了一样朝我们开火。开始是步枪然后是两挺Zzx )0Y~lE机枪。要么是机枪先开的火?见鬼,我忘了!我们开始弯下腰往前跑,我跟在一个无知名的家伙后面,一路上就看到他身后的背包。其他我都忘记了。
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浪漫烛光 www.langmanzg.com

I ran as fast as I could. Where I ran - I do not know. A cry "Forward" rang in my head, but I think I did not shout really. I do not know how long I ran - a second or an hour, the time stopped for me. Suddenly something hit me from the side, I thought I even flew through the air and fell down to the ground.I jumped up and fell again, this time from pain. My foot!!! My foot was twisted with pain. I tried to turn and see what happened to my foot, but I couldn't. I crept forward, but then I thought: "Wait! Why do I creep forward? I need to go back to the medical unit." For a long time I could not realize where the "back" and "forward" were. Smoke was all over, explosions, shooting, crash. The whole battlefield was littered with people convulsing from pain and some objects (I did not elaborate, WHAT kind of objects those were - Valera).I found my bearings and crept back. I thought in desperation that I would never make it back to our lines. Somebody grabbed my foot and pulled. I think I even blacked out from pain. I do not know how I ended up in the trench. The commissar was right there! What the hell, he said, are you doing here? Coward! I said I was not a coward, I was wounded in my foot. Where is the wound??? - he shouted. I could not find it myself. A medic rushed to the stage, touched my foot and laughed loudly. It is a dislocation, he said, I am now going to pull your foot and heal you!He grabbed my foot - before I could say "mama" - and pulled it! The commissar just shook his head - so strong was my curse. I did not know myself, that I could curse so strongly.
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浪漫烛光 www.langmanzg.com

我用尽全力往前跑,我不知道自己是在往哪里跑。“前进”这个词一直在我脑袋里盘旋,但我确信自己没有喊出来。我不记得自己跑了多久——二个或者一个小时,时间似乎完全停止了。突然有样什么东西从侧面打中了我,我感觉自己飞到了空中又摔到了地上。我跳了起来又再次摔倒,这次是疼趴下的。我的脚!!!我的脚剧痛。我试图看下自己的脚究竟伤哪了,可就是做不到。我继续往前爬,一会就想到:“等等!我为什么还要往前爬?我应该回去找卫生员”。花了很长时间我都没分清楚哪边是前方,哪边是后方。到处都是烟雾,爆炸,射击。整个战场横七竖八地躺着受伤的战士和一些“东西”(我就不详细说那些都是什么了——瓦雷拉)。可能就是指炸掉的四肢手脚和人体组织之类的吧我找对了方向后开始往回爬,我开始绝望自己是不是有能力返回到本方阵地。不知是谁抓住了我的腿开始往后拖,因为疼痛我一度昏厥过去,我不知道自己是怎么回的战壕。政委就在那!他说到,你在这里干什么?胆小鬼!我说自己不是个胆小鬼,我的腿受伤了。哪伤了???他咆哮着问到。我也说不清,一个卫生员跑了过来,摸了下我的腿后就开始大笑。只是脱臼了,他说到,我现在就可以把你治好!在我能喊出“妈妈”之前,他就抓住我的脚猛拉。政委直摇头——我狠狠的骂了起来。我不知道我自己能骂出那么难听的话。
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浪漫烛光 www.langmanzg.com

- Did he order an investigation?
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浪漫烛光 www.langmanzg.com

- Oh no! Why would he need me? He just asked which unit I came from and left me alone. The medic, after he learnt that I was from the third Company, that unloaded the night before, thawed and said that the companies were coming back. "Again we came to nothing, damn it! So many people are lost in vain." You creep to your friends, he said, and look out, because the Germans are going to send their air force now. You, he said, were really lucky today, remember this day! All your friends are going to be dead now, he said.
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浪漫烛光 www.langmanzg.com

他对你进行审查了?
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浪漫烛光 www.langmanzg.com

-哦,不!为什么他需要我?他只是问我隶属的单位然后就把我撂在一边。卫生员在了解到我来自昨晚刚下火车的3连后,态度开始缓和说各个步兵连正在撤退。“我们又一无所获的回来了,该死!很多战士白白牺牲了。”你慢慢的爬到你战友那里,他说,小心,因LWyFgH'i!b5`=G为现在德国人准备要派出空军了。他说你今天真是幸运,记住这一天!你所有的战友现在正在流血牺牲,他说。
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浪漫烛光 www.langmanzg.com

- Did you attack again that day?
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浪漫烛光 www.langmanzg.com

- No. There was nobody left to attack with. The company was reduced to 10-12 soldiers together with lieutenant. The sergeant major was killed. I still remember his last name - Chumilin. Why should I - but I still do. I feel so sorry for him now! He was just 20 years old, but his hair was already gray, and he was missing a finger. I don't know anything about him.
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浪漫烛光 www.langmanzg.com

- 那天你又参加了一次进攻?
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浪漫烛光 www.langmanzg.com

- 没。已经没人可以去进攻了。整个连只剩下10到12个人还有中尉。大士也死了,我仍然记得他的姓——舒米林。我不知道为什么至今仍为他感到难过!他那时才20岁,但头发已经变白了,还掉了一个指头。除此以外我对他一无所知。
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浪漫烛光 www.langmanzg.com

- So, you didn't participate in the attacks later, did you?
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浪漫烛光 www.langmanzg.com

- Why not? Of course I did. Twice.
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浪漫烛光 www.langmanzg.com

- Twice??? You were really lucky!
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浪漫烛光 www.langmanzg.com

- (interrupting me) Hey! All who survived the war were lucky! They all had an unusual fate. Those, who had the usual fate died without even firing a shot, without even seeing the Germans.
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浪漫烛光 www.langmanzg.com

- 所以你没有参与之后的战斗,对吗?
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浪漫烛光 www.langmanzg.com

- 为什么不呢?当然,我做到了。两次。
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浪漫烛光 www.langmanzg.com

- 两次???你真幸运!
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浪漫烛光 www.langmanzg.com

-(打断了我)嘿!能在战争中活下来的8SDqj#XwbyJ都是幸运的!他们都是好命。那些命不好的,甚至没开一枪、没见到德国人的样子就死掉了。
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浪漫烛光 www.langmanzg.com

- When did you attack again?
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浪漫烛光 www.langmanzg.com

- Two days later we received reinforcements from a factory, they were big and strong guys! Their hands were like pincers. I was 18 then, and all those workers were in their forties. The next day we attacked again. We even got artillery support. We sat in a small gully, smoking and listening how our artillery was howling over our heads. I got used to that, it was no longer depressing me so much, although the noise was horrible. Then we again received the order "forward!" and we all climbed out of the gully. Alex Kotov, Felix - the Armenian guy and me were supposed to cover one of our guns. We had several 45 mm guns there, and we were ordered to cover one of them. We even received a DP (Degtyarev) light machine-gun and a couple of drum magazines for it.
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浪漫烛光 www.langmanzg.com

- 什么时候再次发动进攻?
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浪漫烛光 www.langmanzg.com

- 两天后我们从一家工厂补充了人员,他们都是大块头!手臂好象蟹钳。当时我只有18岁,那些工人基本都40岁左右。第二天我们再次发起了进攻,这次得到了炮火支援。我们坐在一个小沟壑,吸着烟,听着炮弹在我们头上呼啸。“前进!”我们爬出了沟壑。亚历克斯科托夫·费利克斯——一个亚美尼亚人和K| Rhieq+;M86]fm我负责为本方的一门火炮提供掩护。我们投入了几门45毫米炮,我们奉命要保护其中的一门。我们得到了一挺捷格加廖夫轻机枪和几个弹盘。
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浪漫烛光 www.langmanzg.com

- Ivan Ignatievich, Vasil Bykov mentions DP LMG in a very negative way, saying, it was heavy and low on accuracy...
浪漫烛光 www.langmanzg.com


浪漫烛光 www.langmanzg.com

- (interrupting me) Yes, I did read that stuff! Who is Bykov? He is with artillery! That's it! The machine-gun was good. He is criticizing our machine-gun, but the German 34th (MG-34 - Valera) was even heavier! It weighted 12 kilos, and if on tripod - it was just impossible to lift! Our machine gun was good, he should shut up! The Germans got the 42nd MG (MG-42 - Valera) later, that one was also quite heavy, but it had good rate of fire. Germans, however, used their 34th till the end of the war.
浪漫烛光 www.langmanzg.com


浪漫烛光 www.langmanzg.com

- 伊万·伊格纳季耶维奇,瓦西里·贝科夫对捷格加廖夫轻机枪的评价相当低,他认为这种机枪除了太重外,精度也很低...
浪漫烛光 www.langmanzg.com


浪漫烛光 www.langmanzg.com

- (打断我)恩,我读到过相关的文章!贝科夫是干吗的?他只是个炮兵!就是这样!我们的机枪非常好,他批评我们的机枪,可是德国人的34(指MG-34 - Valera)的分量更重!有12公斤,如果再加上三角架的话,是没办法抬得动的!我们的机枪非常棒,他应该闭嘴!德国人后来用了42机枪(指MG-42 - Valera) 同样非常笨重,不过射速非常快。他们的34一直用到了战争结束。
浪漫烛光 www.langmanzg.com


浪漫烛光 www.langmanzg.com

DP was a light machine-gun. We had a lot of them, in every platoon. Did Germans have a lot of them? We had enough machine-guns for defense. In the early days we were sometimes short on ammo, so many people died in vain because of that!
浪漫烛光 www.langmanzg.com


浪漫烛光 www.langmanzg.com

捷格加廖夫是轻机枪,我们有很多,每个排都有。德国人有那么多吗?我们有足够的机枪用来防御。在战争早期我们时不时会缺乏弹药,很多人都因为这个枉死!
浪漫烛光 www.langmanzg.com


浪漫烛光 www.langmanzg.com

- How were you supposed to cover the artillerists?
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浪漫烛光 www.langmanzg.com

- How? First of all, say, if the Germans counterattack, we were supposed to prevent them from getting close to the gun. The artillerists had small arms as well, even some machine guns, but nevertheless. We always protected our guns in the first place. Our company commander always told us: "Don't forget what you are here for!" We wouldn't have held without those guns. Everybody criticizes those guns now, saying that they were inefficient, but I want to tell you this: if we did not have those guns, we would not have held. Against German machine-guns, mechanized infantry (Panzergrenadiers - Bair), half-tracks - our baby was just the right thing! Germans had the same guns, by the way.
浪漫烛光 www.langmanzg.com


浪漫烛光 www.langmanzg.com

- 你如何为炮兵提供掩护?
浪漫烛光 www.langmanzg.com


浪漫烛光 www.langmanzg.com

- 怎么做?首先,如果德国人发起反攻,我们要阻止他们靠近火炮。炮兵们本身有轻武器,甚至还有一些机枪,但是,我们首先要保护好自己的火炮。连长总是和我们说:“别忘了你来这里的目的!”没有那些火炮我们就没办法守住阵地。现在有很多人在评论这些火炮时,都说它们的效果很差,不过我在这里要告诉你的是:如果我们没有这些火炮,我们就没办法守住阵地。打德国人的机枪、机械化步兵(装甲掷弹兵)和半履带车,我们的宝贝是最合适的。顺便说句,德国人也有类似的火炮。
浪漫烛光 www.langmanzg.com


浪漫烛光 www.langmanzg.com

- Could it efficiently engage enemy tanks?
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浪漫烛光 www.langmanzg.com

- Yes, it could! We fought the tank all together. It was either the artillery or us who destroyed them.However, the Germans did not always have tanks, but Panzergrenadiers and half-tracks were always there! We burnt their tanks quite easily! The primary task of the machine-gunners was to cut the infantry off tanks. That was the hardest thing, as the tanks always tried to destroy MGs first. If we managed to cut the infantry off, we would burn all their tanks. A tank does not see anything near it, you can get close to it and try to either burn it or damage the track.
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浪漫烛光 www.langmanzg.com

- 火炮能有效打击敌人坦克吗?
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浪漫烛光 www.langmanzg.com

- 是的,它做得到!我们与炮兵紧密协同与敌坦克作战,因此(具体到某个战例)很难说是我们还是协同的炮兵将敌坦克击毁的。不过,德国人不是经常有坦克可用,但是装甲掷弹兵和半履带车是一直都有的!要烧掉他们的坦克很容易!机枪Jp]7 B 6.手的主要任务是把步兵和坦克分开,这是最困难的,坦克总是会第一时间消灭机枪阵地。如果我们设法压制住了德国人的步兵,那么我们就会烧掉他们所有的坦克。坦克的视野非常有限,你可以靠近它,点着它或者打断坦克履带。
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浪漫烛光 www.langmanzg.com

- We had few of those AT-guns, and sometimes we had the guns, but not the ammo. We even had to use the German guns sometimes, as there was ammo available for them.
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浪漫烛光 www.langmanzg.com

- Was it often?
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浪漫烛光 www.langmanzg.com

- No, not really. But sometimes we managed to find a little gun with an allocation of ammo. Then we would pick it up.
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浪漫烛光 www.langmanzg.com

- 这些反坦克炮我们不多,有时我们只有炮却没炮弹。有时我们不得不用这些德国炮,只要有炮弹。
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浪漫烛光 www.langmanzg.com

- 经常用吗?
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浪漫烛光 www.langmanzg.com

- 并不常用。但是当我们成功找到火炮和匹配的弹药的RgK{H0o0L=jA时候就会把它们用起来。
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浪漫烛光 www.langmanzg.com

- Were 50 mm company mortars any good?
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浪漫烛光 www.langmanzg.com

- The company mortar was, of course, weaker than the battalion one (82 mm mortar - Valera), but it was lighter. It could be carried by two men. A battalion one could carry by three men: one soldier carried the tube, the other - the tripod and the third - the plate. The battalion mortar had a rather heavier, sometimes it took two soldiers to carry it's plate.You try it yourself - carry this stuff 10 km without a rest, run in the bushes from the planes with this piece of iron, and then engage the enemy without any break! Then we'll see good you would be!Also, during the combat you could quickly change firing positions with the company mortar, but you would not always make it with the battalion one! You could not abandon it or lose - you would have been executed. If it broke - you had to turn it in to the company commander or the sergeant major. Otherwise the "godfather" ("godfather" - NKVD of SMERSH officer - Valera) would scrutinize you.
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浪漫烛光 www.langmanzg.com

- 连属50毫米迫击炮怎么样?
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浪漫烛光 www.langmanzg.com

- 连属50毫米迫击炮的威力要比营属82毫米要小,不过它的分量也轻,行军的时候两个人就能带着走了。82毫米则需要三个人,一个人背炮管,第二个人背炮架,最后一个人背座钣。营属迫击炮非常重,有时候需要两个人才能抬得动座钣。你自己试试看——背着这个装备一气走10千米,带着这个铁家伙跑进灌木丛避免贝敌机发现,然后带着他没有任何休整就与敌人交战!然后我们就能看看你有多棒了!另外,在战斗中你可以随时改变连属迫击炮的阵地,但是营属迫击炮不可以这么干!你不能丢了,否则会被枪毙。如果损坏了,你一定要把它带回来交给连长或是大士。要不然“教父”(“教父”指得是内务部特别行动局的官员- Valera)会来盘问你。
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浪漫烛光 www.langmanzg.com

Mortars were actually quite good in defense! If Germans were pinned down during the attack, we would chase them with mortar fire right under our MGs fire! The Germans did the same trick! That is why it is so dangerous to duck for cover during the attack. It was not so easy to get up again! If you attack, you should run till the end, and never duck for cover! If you lay down - you will never lift your ass from the ground again. You can also get a bullet from the company commander. He had this right. It was his duty to get you attacking, and neither the battalion nor the regiment commander would have charged him if he shot someone. Our company commander warned us right away, that if we lay down, he shoots all of us. He really did shoot some. After that we'll never tried to lie down again.
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浪漫烛光 www.langmanzg.com

迫击炮是防御战的利器!等德国人趴在地上躲避机枪火力的时候,我们就用迫击炮轰。同样德国人也会这套把戏!这就是为什么在进攻途中趴下找掩护危险的原因,想要再爬起来不是那么容易的事。冲锋的时候,你要一路狂奔,别想趴在地上找掩护!如果你趴下来了,那么就别想再把屁股从地上抬起来了。你也会吃到连长的子弹,他有这个权力,连长的职责就是让你去冲锋,如果他枪毙了几个士兵,营长和团长不会指责他。我们连长总是告戒我们,如果我们趴下的话,他会向我们开枪。他真的这样做过,这之后我们再也不会在冲锋的时候趴在地上不动了。
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浪漫烛光 www.langmanzg.com

- Would you often attack?
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浪漫烛光 www.langmanzg.com

- Well, how can I put this? We did. But the attacks can be different! The best one was when the German attack broke down, they started to retreat and then came "bayonets on!" and forward! We would disembowel the German bellies, and jump in their trenches. We would start digging in right away. You could check your watch: in half an hour they would come to their senses and launch a counterattack. If you have not got a foothold, then they throw you back! You don't have your guns in place yet, and it is good news for their Panzergrenadiers. But if you managed to get at least a single gun in place, then they would not be able to do anything! Then they need tanks and artillery, and where do you get those things? It is just in the modern movies (he said that with a neglecting countenance - Valera) that Germans have masses of tanks in every assault. In reality it was quite different! Of course, Germans had tanks, but not in all places! Often they would send a couple of tanks, which would fire from a safe distance and repel our infantry, and that was it! They would not go any further! They also did not want to die, why should they put themselves under fire of our guns? They would engage us to spot our guns and try to suppress them with all they had - air force, artillery and mortars. This is why our artillery was so fast in changing positions. They are digging their trenches behind your back now, and in an hour they are gone!

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浪漫烛光 www.langmanzg.com

- 你们经常发起进攻么?
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浪漫烛光 www.langmanzg.com

- 呃 这让我怎么说呢,是的,但是进攻也分很多种!最好的情况是当德军的进攻被击退,他们开始撤退的时候,这时候来一个“上刺刀”同时冲锋!我们会挑出德国佬的五脏六腑,并且跳进他们的战壕里。而且我们会立-GULh7JMdZ_/?n即开始挖坑。你可以看着你的手表:半个小时里他们会回过味来并且发动反击。如果你没有立足点,他们就会把你赶回去。要是你的大炮不在适当的位置,这对于那些装甲掷弹兵来说可是个好消息。但如果你至少在适当的位置有哪怕一门大炮,那么他们就会一事无成!这时候他们就需要坦克和大炮的支援,而你去哪弄这些东西?在现在的电影中(他说这些的时候脸上挂着轻视的表情——瓦雷拉)德国人无论每次进攻都会有大量的坦克伴随。但是实际上却大不相同!当然,德国人有坦克,但不是所有地方都有!他们经常是派出几辆坦克,在安全距离上开火把我们的步兵击退,而这就是全部了!他们不会做的比这更多,他们也不想死,何苦要置身于我们的炮火之下呢?德军会侦查我们炮兵的位置并且试图召唤他们的空军,炮兵和迫击炮来摧毁我们。这就是我们的炮兵经常转移阵地如此之快的原因。一个小时前他们在你的背后挖掘战壕,不到一个小时又不见了!
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浪漫烛光 www.langmanzg.com

I was wrong when I said that it is easy to burn a tank. Not at all! Before your company burns a single tank you get to sweat a lot. It would also kill half of the company with MGs or with squash them with tracks. If the Germans succeeded in destroying our AT-artillery, they would turn their tanks along the trenches and squish everybody. But that was later, when we started to dig trenches.
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浪漫烛光 www.langmanzg.com

我之前的烧掉一辆坦克很轻松的说法是不对的。一点也不轻松!在你的连点着一辆坦克之前要花很长时间付出很多努力。而且还会被机枪和履带弄死半个连的人。如果德国人击毁了我们的反坦克炮,他们就会用坦克沿着战壕来压我们。但这是在我们开始挖战壕以后的事情了。。
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浪漫烛光 www.langmanzg.com

- What did you did earlier?
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浪漫烛光 www.langmanzg.com

- In 1941 we would not dig trenches.We would dig one- or two-man foxholes, digging in platoon formations.
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浪漫烛光 www.langmanzg.com

- 你们之前不挖吗?
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浪漫烛光 www.langmanzg.com

- 1941年我们不挖战壕。我们只是以排为单位挖单兵或双人散兵坑。
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浪漫烛光 www.langmanzg.com

- What were the advantages and the disadvantages?
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浪漫烛光 www.langmanzg.com

- The disadvantage was that you could be buried there, if it collapsed. That's one thing. And then... it was complete isolation! It is war; crash all around, you can neither hear nor see the orders, the leadership and command was very poor in those days. How can you lead troops, if everyone is in his own foxhole? Install a phone in every foxhole or what??? How would you feel if you sat in a hole in the middle of a field? You also did not know where the others were. Probably they are already dead or retreat and you are the only person alive? Then it seems that enemies all are shooting just at you. A horrible feeling! (The same was mentioned in Rokossovsky's memoirs. He wrote that was one of the major reason of disorganized retreat and it prevent of proper management of your troops on a battlefield - Valera)

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浪漫烛光 www.langmanzg.com

- 优点和缺点分别是什么?
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浪漫烛光 www.langmanzg.com

- 缺点是如果坑洞塌了,你就会被活埋在里面。这是其一,其次嘛,完全是各自为战!这可是打仗:战场上到处都是爆炸,你听不到也看不到命令,那个时候驾驭和指挥部队都是很困难的。如果每个人都呆在自己的散兵坑里,你怎么领导自己部队?每个散兵坑里都安部电话吗?如果你坐在战场中间的一个洞里会是什么感觉?你不知道其他人在哪里。可能他们都已经死了或者已经撤退了,你是唯一的幸存者?然后看来敌人把所有的火力都集中在你身上。非常恐怖的感觉!(在罗科索夫斯基的回忆录中也有同样的说法。他认为这是造成无组织撤退的主要原因,妨碍了指挥员采取有效手段管理阵地上的部队- Valera)
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浪漫烛光 www.langmanzg.com

However, our officers have quickly learnt this lesson and taught us to dig trenches in full depth and half-depth. That was a whole science in itself!8y{w^o*kixk) You could not dig those trenches everywhere! You dig here and get stones, you dig there and get water. Sometimes we would fight knee-deep in water. It was because we did not have time to dig trenches in other places, or because of "tactical considerations". Then we dug trenches half-depth, in order not to stand in the water. But those trenches easily collapsed, and after an hour of heated battle you would not tell that there was a defensive position there.
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浪漫烛光 www.langmanzg.com

不过,我们的军官们很快接受教训了,他们教我们挖全深度的或一半深度的战Cu(y5 jk.Cb'W%壕。这可是一门大学问!不是所有的地方都适合挖战壕!有时候我们不得不在过膝盖的水里战斗,这是因为我们没有时间在别处挖战壕,或是处于“战术考虑”。不过这些战壕很容易塌,激战过后,你很难想象这里一个小时之前是一块防御阵地。
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浪漫烛光 www.langmanzg.com

Ivan Ignatievich participated in fighting around Balaton lake
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浪漫烛光 www.langmanzg.com

- Ivan Ignatievich, could you tell about the battle in greater detail, at the "grass root" level, so to say?
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浪漫烛光 www.langmanzg.com

伊万·伊格纳季耶维奇参与了在巴拉顿湖附近的战斗。
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-伊万·伊格纳季耶维奇,你能尽可能详细地向我们讲一下这一战吗,越详细越好,从所谓的“草根”角度。
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浪漫烛光 www.langmanzg.com


浪漫烛光 www.langmanzg.com

- It is better to start the story from the rumor that circulated shortly before those Hungarian events. The rumor was that they were selecting all soldiers with three and more wounds (Ivan Ignatievich was wounded four times in the war). They said that there was going to be a war against the United States, and they needed experienced personnel. The number of wounds was kind of a trademark, a guarantee of our experience. The rumor proved to be true - a major arrived at our battalion, we all were drawn up and he selected several soldiers from the list, including me. We were put on the truck and left the battalion for junior lieutenants' basic training. However, I only spent a month there, as far as I remember. All of a sudden they drew us up, gave out the weapons, put on the trucks and took us somewhere. We were unloaded on a field and received an order to dig trenches. Except rifles and hand grenades we had nothing. Just two light machine-guns for the whole company. Where we were, where other units were, what was in the rear, where was the artillery - we knew nothing. It was obvious from the strong rumble and near explosions that we were very close to the frontline. The company commander was running around and shouting that we should dig like crazy. We did not make it anyway! Before we could dig anything, "Messers" (Russian calling of German Bf-109's - Valera) flew over us at a low altitude, followed by "Shtuckas" (Russian calling of German Ju-87's - Valera). They did not attack us, but flew towards some small town that lay to our right. There they were intercepted by our fighters and a furious battle commenced.
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浪漫烛光 www.langmanzg.com

-那我最好从匈牙利的那些事发生之前的一个谣言说起。谣言说上面要把那些负过三次或三次以上的士兵集中起来(伊万·伊格纳季耶维奇在战争中一共前后负过四次伤)。他们说马上就会和美国人开战了,急需有经验的士兵。伤口的数量是一个标志,是我们的经验保证。一名少校来到了我们营——这似乎印证了谣言的真实性。我们列队后他从中挑选了包括我在内的几名士兵。我们上了卡车去接受成为一名少尉的初级训练。我记得自己就在那里呆了一个月左右,突然有一天他们把我们召集在一起,分发了武器后,就把我们送上卡车运到了某个地方。我们在一块野地里下车后就接到命令开始挖战壕。除了步枪和手榴弹外,我们什么都没有。整个连只有二挺轻机枪。我们在哪里,其他部队在哪里,后方在哪里,大炮又在哪里——这些我们都不知道。周围不断传来的隆隆巨响和爆炸声让我们确信自己离前线不远。连长跑来跑去,喊着让我们玩命地挖战壕。但是我们根本没挖好!在我们开挖之前,“梅塞”就低空掠过我们头顶,接]z]WHun&}':df踵而至的是“斯图卡”。它们没打我们,而是朝我们右边的一个小镇飞过去。在那里它们被我军的战斗机拦住了,激战开始了。
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浪漫烛光 www.langmanzg.com


浪漫烛光 www.langmanzg.com

The sounds of explosions drew closer, and it seemed to me that I heard the roar of engines - TANKS!!! Our defense was on the backside of a large hill. I constantly looked at the ridge. I saw our forward security appearing at the ridge and running towards us. They ran to the company commander, explained something to him and we received the order: "prepare for the tank attack!" - although we all knew what was happening - there were no "greens" among us. We hid ourselves in our half-trenches, half-ditches, trying to camouflage ourselves with branches, sod, and all things we could find.
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浪漫烛光 www.langmanzg.com

爆炸的声音越来越近了,我好象听到了发动机的咆哮——坦克!!!我们的阵地设在一座大山的背面。我不断的往山脊方向看。我看到我们的前沿警戒部队出现在从山脊上出现并向我们跑来。他们跑到连长那里向他解释着些什么,我们接到了命令:“准备迎击敌人的坦克!”——不过我们已经知道将要发生什么了——我们中间可没有“菜鸟”。我们将自己隐蔽在尚未完工的战壕中,试图用树枝、草、和任何我们能找到的东西来进行伪装。
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浪漫烛光 www.langmanzg.com

Of course, we knew we were almost doomed - we had no AT-guns, no machine-guns - we were almost hopeless against the tanks. We had the grenades, but it is very hard to knock out a tank with a hand grenade!
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浪漫烛光 www.langmanzg.com

当然我们知道这次是在劫难逃了——没有反坦克炮,没有机枪,我们根本奈何不了坦克。虽然我们有手榴弹,但是想要只用一颗手榴弹就彻底干掉一辆坦克是非常困难的!
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浪漫烛光 www.langmanzg.com

- What is the problem?
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浪漫烛光 www.langmanzg.com

- The problem is that a tank is made of steel, and you are not. It fires its main gun and machine-guns at you. It can also squash you. It is very hard to knock out a tank in general, but it is especially hard to knock it out with a hand grenade. If the crew is "green", then you still have a chance, but if there are vets in the tank, it is utterly impossible. Unfortunately, you only learn this when the tank suddenly turns and squashes you. Or kills you with a machine-gun. By the way, what do you mean - to knock out? We had the anti-tank grenades, but they were useless against heavy tanks. It is not every grenade that sets tank on fire! It takes training, coolness and experience. You do not have many chances to get close to a tank, but you have even fewer chances to get away from the tank if you failed to knock it out. In most of the cases we would try to damage the tracks. Then you could try the satchel charge. The crew does not necessarily abandon the immobilized tank, it can stay and continue to fight. You should always burn the tank.
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浪漫烛光 www.langmanzg.com

- 有什么问题?
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浪漫烛光 www.langmanzg.com

- 问题是坦克是铁做的,可你不是。坦克除了用主炮和机枪向你射击外,它还可以用履带压扁你。要击毁一辆坦克是非常困难的,用一枚手榴弹来消灭坦克那就更难了。如果敌人坦克乘员都是新手的话,你还有点机会。如果坐着的都是老兵,这就是件不可能完成的任务。很不幸,只有当坦克开始转向压向你,或是机枪开火的时候,你才能知道这一点。顺便问一句,你知*d5}%t3G-{道什么叫“彻底击毁”吗?我们有反坦克手榴弹,可以对重型坦克几乎无效。不是每一颗手榴弹都能打爆坦克的!除了需要大量的训练外,还要求战士有着冷静的头脑和丰富的实战经验。你没有多少机会可以靠近坦克,就算是击毁了一辆坦克你也很难有机会逃脱。所以大部分情况下我们只是用炸药包把坦克的履带炸断。坦克乘员不会就这样抛弃自己的坦克,而是会留在坦克里继续战斗。你总要把坦克点着才行。
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浪漫烛光 www.langmanzg.com

- That time we did not even have the bottles ("Molotov Cocktails" - Valera). We only had hand grenades, and most of them were "pineapples". At that moment some people appeared on the ridge - they were running towards us as fast as their legs would carry them. That meant that our defenses were completely broken and avalanche of tanks and Panzergrenadiers was about to descend on us.
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浪漫烛光 www.langmanzg.com

- 那个时候我们甚至没有瓶子(指“莫洛托夫鸡尾酒”- Valera)。我们只有手榴弹,不过大部分都是“菠萝”。那一刻一些人出现在了山脊上——他们拼尽头全力向我们跑过来。这也就意味着我们的防线被被德国人的坦克和装甲掷弹兵完全冲挎了。
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浪漫烛光 www.langmanzg.com

- Why Panzergrenadiers?
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浪漫烛光 www.langmanzg.com

- Germans would often do it that way - their tanks were followed by Panzergrenadiers. That is why their blows were so powerful.

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浪漫烛光 www.langmanzg.com

-为什么是装甲掷弹兵?
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-德国人习惯这么做——他们的坦克总是有装甲掷弹兵伴随,这也是他们的冲击力如此巨大的原因。
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浪漫烛光 www.langmanzg.com

- What happened next?
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浪漫烛光 www.langmanzg.com

- The German tanks appeared on the ridge. Some ten of them at once - they rolled forward at a relatively high speed and fired machine-guns at our fleeing infantry. I remember that stupid thought - "this is IT!" - that passed through my mind. That was really terrifying - a tank assault! They even fired their main guns non-stop. This has a very strong effect on the inexperienced soldiers, although it is almost impossible to fire accurately on the move. But the psychological effect is devastating! I also wavered, although I had experienced this kind of attacks before. I knew the main thing was not to flee, although my legs wanted to run themselves. We had to let the tanks pass through our positions and stop the Panzergrenadiers. But the tanks turned and rolled along our defensive line, merely squashing us. I saw one of the tanks detonating a land mine...
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浪漫烛光 www.langmanzg.com

- 后来发生了什么?
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浪漫烛光 www.langmanzg.com

- 德国人的坦克出现在了山脊。首先出现的有大约10辆,它们边往前冲边用机枪向慌乱逃跑的士兵射击。我的脑海中冒出一个愚蠢的想法——完蛋了!坦克突击实在是太恐怖了!它们甚至在行进中向我们射击。尽管这样做几乎打不中移动中的目标,但是对那些缺乏经验的士兵来说,是很YUa+=I&MV]HMr震撼的!虽然在这之前我也经历过类似的情况,可是这次我也开始动摇了。尽管我的内心很想逃跑,但我明白现在不能乱来。我们只能让坦克越过阵地,但是一定要挡住后面的装甲掷弹兵。这时敌人的坦克开始转向朝我们阵地压了过来。就在这时我看到其中一辆坦克踩中了一颗地雷。
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浪漫烛光 www.langmanzg.com

- Where did the mines come from?
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浪漫烛光 www.langmanzg.com

- The engineer platoon made it to plant mines on the road. Two tanks were knocked out by those mines, one of them burnt out and the other one, with smashed up road wheels, had been firing for a long time, before it was surrounded and burnt. I want to tell you one thing - this might all sound heroic, but there was nothing heroic in that fight. I just saw a German Panther with red tracks. They were red with blood, but I realized that much later. I do not remember what I was thinking about during that fight. I remember the fight itself quite vaguely. They said I knocked out one tank, but I am not sure if it was really "my tank". Most likely, the leadership needed living heroes, not dead ones. This is why in the hospital (that was Ivan Ignatievich's last wound - he lost his leg in that battle - Valera) I received the Order of Glory.
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浪漫烛光 www.langmanzg.com

- 地雷是哪来的?
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浪漫烛光 www.langmanzg.com

- 是工兵排事先在路上布得地雷。有两辆坦克压响了地雷。一辆爆炸起火,另一辆的负重轮被打烂了,在被包围并起火之前,战斗了很久。我要告诉你一件事——这事听起来很伟大,可是在那场战斗中没有英雄事迹。我看到一辆德国黑豹坦克的履带是红色的,后来我才意识到上面全是血。我已经不记得当时自己是怎么想的,对这场战斗的印象也非常模糊。他们说我干掉了一辆坦克,可我不确定那是不是我干的。很可能领导需要一个活着的英雄,而不是死人。在医院里(那次是伊万·伊格纳季耶维奇最后一次受伤——他在战斗中失去了一条腿)我接受了光荣勋章。
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浪漫烛光 www.langmanzg.com

I visited there later one time (Hungarian town Komarno - Valera). In 1985 they took us there for the Victory Day. I visited the cemetery. All the graves there had the same date engraved - February 19, 1945. That's the way it is.
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浪漫烛光 www.langmanzg.com

后来我去那里参观过一次(匈牙利城市科马尔诺- Valera)。1985年胜利日的时候他们邀请我们去了一趟。我去了墓地。所有的墓地上都刻着同样的日子——1945年2月19日。
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浪漫烛光 www.langmanzg.com





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