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作者信息   主题: 苏联士兵5254

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【人类幸存者】



  发表时间: 2008-12-17 19:16:01             


http://www.members.shaw.ca/grossdeutschland/welch.htm
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THE FRONTOVIK
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浪漫烛光 www.langmanzg.com

by Daniel Welch
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The intent of this article is to give a description of the Soviet soldier of World War Two.
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First off, the term "frontovik" is a slang term denoting a combat hardened front-line soldier. It was used similar to the way "G.I.", "Tommy", or "landser" was used. But although G.I. could be applied to a raw recruit in the American army, "frontovik" would only be applied to a combat veteran in the Red Army. I.e. a veteran of Stalingrad would be considered "a real frontovik".
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Frontovik这个词是指二战中执行攻坚作战的苏联士兵.和这个词意思类似的有"G.I"、"Tommy"或者Landser.不过,G.I也可以指美国部队的新兵.而Frontovik只是指久经沙场的苏联老兵.比如,一个在斯大林格勒的老兵就是个真正的Frontovik.
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Let’s start into a normal routine day, beginning with how he sleeps (I will use he in this article, although "he" could just as well be a "she" no matter if we’re talking about infantry, mortarmen, tankers, or whatever). If he has a rain-cape/shelter half, he might have used it as a ground sheet to lay on, wrapped up in it, used it as a lean-to, or teamed up with a comrade to actually pitch it as a tent. Manuals show it with issue stakes and poles, but apparently most soldiers only carried the cape itself, in horse-shoe fashion over the shoulder with its issue rope or some other strap. Photos of it in use as a tent are rare, and it can be assumed that he either used sticks as poles and pegs, or some other expedient method. Use your own ingenuity.
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首先,来到一个平常的日子里,从他的睡觉说起.(他,或者是指"她".总之,不管他是步兵、迫击炮手或坦克手或其他的)如果他有一块防雨布,他多半会把它当铺开,斜支起来.或和同志们一起把它搭起来当帐篷用.士兵手册上说这种雨布应当与树桩或树枝配合使用.但实际上,士兵们都是单独使用它,用他们的军装当作固定的绳索,或者是用皮带.对于这个习惯,很少有照片能说明.但我们可以推断出他们也用树枝支撑,或者做固定用的桩,或者其他有效的办法.
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Blankets, which were brown,(1) although issued in garrison environments, were not issued for field use. Soldiers were expected to make do with greatcoats. Here is an example: "On cold nights I shared a greatcoat with quite a few of my wartime comrades in the fighting lines. Many of them have since fallen...There is no brotherhood that binds people closer than the brotherhood that’s born in the lines, and a shared greatcoat is one of its symbols. You feel warm and secure with a friend close by. Actually, there are two greatcoats for two. A shared greatcoat is just a figure of speech. So what happens to the second? Duffel bags or lambskin mittens (with two fingers so it’s easier to shoot) are used for pillows. The individual tents that double up as cloaks are used a mattresses and the greatcoats are the blankets. The shabbier one covers the feet and legs and the newer one the upper part of the bodies. Both men settle down on the same side. If there is the blessed chance of taking off your boots, the feet are tucked into the sleeves of the greatcoat - a pair of feet to a sleeve. The upper greatcoat is pulled over the shoulders, the shoulder of one fits into the right sleeve, the shoulder of the other into the left. The result is a kind of sleeping bag, warm and cozy. If it gets inordinately cold, the greatcoat is pulled over the heads - one head in one sleeve, the other in the other. When one side goes numb and the other freezes stiff, both men turn over simultaneously and the fitful sleep of the soldier continues." (2)
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毯子,通常是棕色的,虽然是配给在部队驻地使用,并不用于野外。但士兵们还是愿意和军大衣一起配合使用。有个例子:在一个寒冷的夜晚,我和战壕里的几个同志分享一件军大衣。他们中的不少人之后牺牲了……没有比在同一条战壕里更牢靠的兄弟情谊了。一件合用的军大衣就是证明。边上有个兄弟使你觉得温暖而安全。实际上,这儿有两个人的两件军大衣,共用一件军大衣只是个比喻。野战背包或kp,a?9小羊皮手套〔有两个洞伸出手指,射击时更方便〕当成枕头。单独的帐篷被两两拼起来当作通铺的床垫而军大衣就是毯子。破旧的大衣盖手和脚,新一点的盖在身上。如果有幸能脱掉靴子,脚通常会伸进大衣的袖子里。两只脚伸进一个袖子,上面的军大衣盖到肩膀,左边的袖子裹住一个人的肩膀,右边的裹住另一个人的。结果就是安逸和温暖使我们变成了磕睡虫。如果天气非常冷,军大衣会盖到头,左袖是一个人的头,右边是另一个人的。如果两个人都冻得够呛,那他们会同时转过身来继续他们断断续续的睡眠。
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When he awakes, perhaps he will shave. Earlier in the war, he was more likely to shave completely, if razors were available. By the end of the war large numbers of soldiers wore mustaches, partly to save razor blades, but also as a gesture of machismo. Beards, however, remained a rarity, except among very old soldiers.(3) There were never enough experienced barbers in the army, so most soldiers just cut each other’s hair and helped each other to shave when there were no mirrors.(4) Shaved heads were a fashionable military style during the inter-war period, and the fashion carried on throughout the war.
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醒来后,也许他会刮胡子,在战争初期,如果有剃须刀的话,他可能会把胡子刮个干干净净。但是在战争后期,很多士兵开始留胡子,一方面是节省刀片,另一方面,很多人觉得留胡子是男子汉的象征。不过总的来说,留胡子的还是很少,多数是些老兵。军队里没有足够的有经验的理发师,因此,没有镜子的时候,都是互相帮助理发和刮胡子。这样的{=$dG@1^WE#形象在战争时期是很流行的,这种风气贯穿整个战争年代。
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If he did not sleep in his clothes, he needs to get dressed. The feet were covered in foot wraps called "portyanki". Portyanki look kind of like large neckerchiefs. Socks were also worn as "during the war civilians knitted millions of scarves and pairs of socks. Most of these were collected by Party or factory organizations, and were sent to the soldiers. Occasionally, a delegation from some large organization would go to the front and hand over the goods they had produced". (5) Underwear was issued, in summer and winter weights. Photos of masses of prisoners taken at the beginning of the war show the summer weight stuff to look like khaki or O.D. boxer shorts and loose fitting tank tops. Long sleeve white undershirts were also issued that appear to be linen. Winter weight was of a cotton/wool blend.
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如果士兵没有钻进衣服里睡觉,他通常会找些铺盖。脚通常会包在裹脚布〔Portyanki〕。 穿着的袜子通常是“在战争期间,人民群众手工编制的,有些是拿桌布做的。”大部分都是党和组织收集来发给士兵的。少数是有些机关代表团来到前线捐赠他们自己制作的。〔与我军“拥军袜”何其相似!〕内衣裤是发放的,分冬夏两种。大量战争HLc{n7] =l^D)*&2初期的照片显示出夏季式的是用卡其布做的,类似于拳击短裤,松松散散的象是水桶,长袖白色内衣也是发放的,亚麻制品。冬季式是棉毛混纺的。
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Pants and uniforms were also issued in summer and winter weights. Cotton and synthetic blends were issued during the summer, and wool and synthetic blends during the winter. There was little standardization in the patterns used, just so long as they conformed to the general style, and indeed, anyone who could sew was expected to produce uniforms for the army, just as the socks were produced in the previous paragraph. There was no standardization in the material itself, and I even have an excellent photo that clearly shows a female soldier wearing a gymnastiorka tunic made out of lend-lease G.I. herringbone twill. Color of material varied from anything to near-white shades of green to dark brown and green khakis. An example of a gymnastiorka in the Patton museum is made of a wonderfully dark green shade of U.S. G.I. blanket wool. His tunic may or may not have any rank. Sapogi jackboots were made with a leather lower and an impregnated canvas upper. Evidence exists that these were orinally made with leather soles and heels, but that this may have been partially or fully changed to rubber soles and heels just prior to or early in the war. This is the way enlisted boots are made to this day. Officer boots are made fully of leather. If ankle boots are worn, they will be worn with puttees.
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制服和军裤也是分冬夏两种发放部队,夏季的材料是棉和人造纤维,冬季是羊毛和人造纤维。很少有标准化的款式,一般都是大号的适合所有人的标准尺寸。



  玉树凌疯,风流涕淌,装傻充愣,我本纯情
作者信息   主题: 苏联士兵5257

近卫龙骑兵


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【深谋远虑我猫总】



  发表时间: 2008-12-17 19:40:08             


以前在战争的艺术看过。真是个好论坛呀,可惜没了。。。。



  人啊,认识你自己!
作者信息   主题: 苏联士兵5261

白瑞德


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【人类幸存者】



  发表时间: 2008-12-17 19:54:41             


是啊,老本的坛子,不知道有没有可能恢复了。



  每当你几乎快被困难击倒,丧失斗志的时候,你就想想背后还有无数等你倒下捅刀子的SB,就充满了力量。
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