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作者信息   主题: 翻译作品—中国战场的战略防御阶段21345

工农红军


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【勤劳的小毛驴】



  发表时间: 2010-10-27 15:53:49             


The U.S. Army Campaigns
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of World War II
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第二次世界大战美国军队战役系列  
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Introduction
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序言
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World War II was the largest and most violent armed conflict in the history of mankind. However, the half century that now separates us from that conflict has exacted its toll on our collective knowledge. While World War II continues to absorb the interest of military scholars and historians, as well as its veterans, a generation of Americans has grown to maturity largely unaware of the political, social, and military implications of a war that, more than any other, united us as a people with a common purpose.
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第二次世界大战是人类有史以来规模最大且烈度最甚的武装冲突。尽管如此,随着半个世纪的时光流逝,如今的我们在对这场战争的群体性认识早已变得模糊不清。第二次世界大战这段历史一直在吸引着军事学者和历史学家的关注,就像那些曾经参战的老兵一样,他们是在这场战争的进程中不知不觉成熟起来的一代美国人,无论是在和这场战争紧密相关政治、社会和军事等方面,还是其他方面,我们这些美国人民在经历了这场战争之后,终于团结起来向着共同的目标前进。
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Highly relevant today, World War II has much to teach us, not only about the profession of arms, but also about military preparedness, global strategy, and combined operations in the coalition war against fascism. To commemorate the nation's 50th anniversary of World War II, the U.S. Army has published a variety of materials to help educate Americans about that momentous experience. These works provide great opportunities to learn about and renew pride in an Army that fought so magnificently in what has been called "the mighty endeavor."
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第二次世界大战的历史和今天的现实紧密相关,它不仅教会我们要建设一支职业化的武装力量,同时也在军事准备、全球战略以及在对抗法西斯主义的战争中同盟友联合作战等方面,给予我们诸多启迪。在第二次大战结束五十周年的时候,美国军队为了帮助美国人民更多的了解那段影响深远的历史,发表了一系列原始资fJ|eNp _^?`7Z,W4料。这是了解并重新树立以美国军队为荣观念的绝好机会,曾经参加过这场波澜壮阔的战争的美国军队,他们的表现被称之为“浴血牺牲“。
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World War II was waged on land, on sea, and in the air over several diverse theaters of operation for approximately six years. The following essay is one of a series of campaign studies highlighting those struggles that, with their accompanying suggestions for further reading, are designed to introduce you to one of the Army's significant military feats from that war.
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第二次世界大战在陆地、海洋和天空,在多个不同的战场上持续进行了六年时间。接下来读者将要看到的文字,就是二战中一个战场战争历程的aZKxq*_*!=Ei"9QE细致论述,同时还有更为深入的分析,这一切都可以使您更好的了解二战中美国军队在这场战争所创造辉煌战绩的一个组成部分。
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This brochure was prepared in the U.S. Army Center of Military History by Mark D. Sherry. I hope this absorbing account of that period will enhance your appreciation of American achievements during World War II.
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这本小册子的作者是美军军事历史中心的马克 D 雪力。我希望读者能通过这本书中引人入胜的内容加深对二战中美国所获得的成就的认识。
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JOHN W. MOUNTCASTLE
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Brigadier General, USA
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Chief of Military History
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美国陆军准将
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军事历史协会主席
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约翰W蒙卡斯尔
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China Defensive
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中国军队的防御阶段
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4 July 1942--4 May 1945
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1942年7月bC5h| cRd/O4日—1945年5月4日
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The China Theater of Operations more resembled the Soviet-German war on the Eastern Front than the war in the Pacific or the war in Western Europe. On the Asian continent, as on the Eastern Front, an Allied partner, China, carried the brunt of the fighting. China had been at war with Japan since 1937 and continued the fight until the Japanese surrender in 1945. The United States advised and supported China's ground war, while basing only a few of its own units in China for operations against Japanese forces in the region and Japan itself. The primary American goal was to keep the Chinese actively in the Allied war camp, thereby tying down Japanese forces that otherwise might be deployed against the Allies fighting in the Pacific.
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中国战场的战争形式,相对于太平洋战争和西欧战场,更类似于苏德战争在东线的战斗。在亚洲战场,就像在东线一样,是由盟国中的一员,中国承担着主要的战争压力。中国从1937年开始就在同日本作战,一直坚持到45年日本投降为止。美国曾经在这段时期,以数量不多的军队投入中国战场,帮助并指导中国战区的对日地面作战并空袭日本本土。美国的首要目标是确保中国人在盟军阵营内积极作战,牵制日本军队以使其不能投入到太平洋战场上去。
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The United States confronted two fundamental challenges in the China theater. The first challenge was political. Despite facing a common foe in Japan, Chinese society was polarized. Some Chinese were supporters of the Nationalist Kuomintang government; some supported one of the numerous former warlords nominally loyal to the Nationalists; and some supported the Communists, who were engaged in a guerrilla war against the military and political forces of the Nationalists. Continuing tensions, which sometimes broke out into pitched battles, precluded development of a truly unified Chinese war effort against the Japanese.
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美国在中国战区需要面对两个最主要的挑战。首先是政治方面的,尽管需要面对日本这一共同的敌人,但中国社会却处在分裂状态。一部分中国人支持国民党政府;一部分中国人支持大大小小表面上忠于国民政府的军阀;而另外一些人则支持共产党,后者一直在进行着从军政两方面对抗国民政府的游击战争。这种紧张不安的局势不时为不同势力间的激战所打破,而这种冲突同时又伴随着不同势力联合起来一致的对日抗战。
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The second challenge in the China theater was logistical. Fighting a two-front war of its own, simultaneously having to supply other Allies, and facing enormous distances involved in moving anything from the United States to China, the U.S. military could not sustain the logistics effort required to build a modern Chinese army. Without sufficient arms, ammunition, and equipment, let alone doctrine and leadership training, the Chinese Nationalist Army was incapable of driving out the Japanese invaders. A "Europe-first" U.S. policy automatically lowered the priority of China for U.S.-manufactured arms behind the needs of U.S. forces, of other European Allies, and of the Soviet Union. The China theater was also the most remote from the United States. American supplies and equipment had to endure long sea passages to India for transshipment to China, primarily by airlift. But transports bringing supplies to China had to fly over the Himalayas the so-called Hump--whose treacherous air currents and rugged mountains claimed the lives of many American air crews. Despite a backbreaking effort, only a fraction of the supplies necessary to successfully wage a war ever reached southern China.
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其次是后勤方面的。美国不但要同时在两AJPy e9?q8C个战场参战,还要支援其他盟国,而中美之间的地理距离又是如此遥远,美国的军力无法为建设一支现代化的中国军队提供足够的支持和后勤保障。没有足够的武器弹药和装备作为支撑,仅靠教条和指挥能力的改善,中国国民党军根本不可能将日本侵略者赶走。根据美国政府“欧洲第一“的政策,中国的优先性排在美国军队,其他欧洲盟国和苏联之后。同时中国战区距离美国也是最远的。补给品和装备从美国出发,要经过远距离的海运抵达印度,再从印度通过空运转送到中国。向中国空运的航线要通过喜马拉雅山脉,也就是所谓的”驼峰“航线,在这条航线上复杂多变的气候和起伏的崇山峻岭夺走了众多美国机组人员的生命。尽管付出了高昂的代价,但只有一小部分物资最终抵达了中国南部地区,而其数量远远不足以支撑中国军队发动一场成功的攻势。
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Regardless of these handicaps, the United States and Nationalist China succeeded in forging a coalition that withstood the tests of time. Indeed, Chinese leader Generalissimo Chiang Kai-shek, the Allied Supreme Commander, China Theater, accepted, though reluctantly, U.S. Army generals as his chiefs of staff. This command relationship also endured differences in national war aims and cultures, as well as personalities, until the end of the war. The original policies of President Franklin D. Roosevelt and Army Chief of Staff George C. Marshall succeeded--China stayed in the war and prevented sizable numbers of Japanese troops from deploying to the Pacific.
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尽管面临着众多的困难,美国和中国国民政府的联盟还是经受住了时间的考验。当然,盟军中国战区最高长官,也是中国的领袖<



  殊死的战斗不是为了荣耀,而是为了大地上的生活
作者信息   主题: 翻译作品—中国战场的战略防御阶段21346

白瑞德


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【人类幸存者】



  发表时间: 2010-10-27 16:09:00             


译的不错,支持下。提个小建议:Sherry 一般译作“谢利”



  每当你几乎快被困难击倒,丧失斗志的时候,你就想想背后还有无数等你倒下捅刀子的SB,就充满了力量。
作者信息   主题: 翻译作品—中国战场的战略防御阶段21347

近卫龙骑兵


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【深谋远虑我猫总】



  发表时间: 2010-10-27 20:27:01             


How well both General Stilwell and General Wedemeyer persuaded the theater commander-in-chief, Generalissimo Chiang, to support U.S. strategic goals, and how effectively U.S. training and materiel support could build selected Chinese Army divisions into modern tactical units, capable of standing up to Japanese adversaries, were secondary objectives.
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尽管史迪威将军还有魏德迈将军费尽心思劝说中国战区总司令蒋介石大元帅支持美国的战略目标,尽管美国人努力训练并武装那些精挑细选出来的中国军队,希望尽可能让他们变成足以和日本军队匹敌的现代化军队,这些都是次要目标。



  人啊,认识你自己!
作者信息   主题: 翻译作品—中国战场的战略防御阶段21351

工农红军


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【勤劳的小毛驴】



  发表时间: 2010-10-28 10:58:39             


How well both General Stilwell and General Wedemeyer persuaded the theater commander-in-chief, Generalissimo Chiang, to support U.S. strategic goals, and how effectively U.S. training and materiel support could build selected Chinese Army divisions into modern tactical units, capable of standing up to Japanese adversaries, were secondary objectives.
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尽管史迪威将军还有魏德迈将军费尽心思劝说中国战区总司令蒋介石大元帅支持美国的战略目标,尽管美国人努力训练并武装那些精挑细选出来的中国军队,希望尽可能让他们变成足以和日本军队匹敌的现代化军队,这些都是次要目标。


以上内容由近卫龙骑兵2010-10-27 20:27:01 最后更改过
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  恩恩 对 我其实注意到那句话了 看来加上比较好一些



  殊死的战斗不是为了荣耀,而是为了大地上的生活
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