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作者信息   主题: 二战时波兰的4TP轻型坦克4893

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  发表时间: 2008-11-18 22:20:43             

特别提示:本帖子在 2008-12-28 23:33:03 由用户 412886049 编辑过



浪漫烛光 www.langmanzg.com


浪漫烛光 www.langmanzg.com

The story of the Polish light reconnaissance tank 4TP, also known under its factory designation: PZInż.140, is combined with the designs of well-known British designers, J. V. Carden and V. Loyd. Working in the Vickers Works, they designed numerous succesfull light tanks, which were exported to many countries and influenced many other designs in the world (eg. Vickers E - 6 ton). Since 1928 they developed a line of the Light Tanks for the British Army (Mk I - Mk IV), and similar tanks for an export. The main features of these designs were: the paired bogey-type suspension, two wheels per bogey, sprung on leaf springs or helical springs; an engine placed in the right part of the hull; two men crew and a rotating turret, fitted with a machine gun in most variants. The export variants were designated: Commercial Light Tank Vickers Carden-Loyd 4 ton, and developed into models: M1933, M1934, M1935, M1936 and M1937 (the latter was armed with a 4-pdr 40mm gun, built for Latvia). They were exported to many countries, mainly: Belgium (as: T.15), the Netherlands (for the Dutch East Indies), Lithuania, Latvia, Siam, Argentina, Switzerland. They also served as a base for Vickers Carden-Loyd Amphibian Tank (read more on PZInz.130 page) and some artillery tractors. The latest British Light Tanks of Carden and Loyd were Mk V and Mk VI, with a 3-men crew.
浪漫烛光 www.langmanzg.com


浪漫烛光 www.langmanzg.com

1937年8月15日交付军方的波兰轻型侦察坦克4TP的工厂名称是"PZInż.140",此种坦克与英国维克斯公司的著名设计师卡登(J.V. Carden)和洛埃德(V.Loyd)颇有渊源.卡登和洛埃德曾设计出多种成功的轻型坦克,有些设计被销往世界各国并且对他国的坦克设计产生过深远的影响(比如维克斯的E型6吨坦克).自1928年起,两人为英国军队设计了一系列轻型坦克(Mk I - Mk IV),而且也产出了相应的出口型.这些车型的基本特征是每两个负重轮成一组,使用板弹簧或螺旋弹簧悬挂,发动机位于车体右侧,坦克只有两个乘组员,多数型号仅仅拥有机枪作为武装.其中的出口型被称为维克斯卡登·洛埃德四吨轻坦克,分为M1933、M1934、M1935、M1936和M1937型.这种出口型在比利时以T-15的名称制造,荷兰购买的用于武装荷属东印度殖民军.此外,拉脱维亚、立陶宛、暹罗(泰国)、阿根廷和瑞士都曾购买过,为拉脱维亚制造的后期型装备着四十毫米火炮.这些小车亦被发展为水路两用型,或为炮兵提供拖曳服务.卡登和洛埃德设计的最后两种英国坦克Mk V和Mk VI则有三名乘组员.
浪漫烛光 www.langmanzg.com


浪漫烛光 www.langmanzg.com

In the early thirties Poland was producing tankettes only (developed from Carden-Loyd tankette as well), but a program of armoured weapons' development anticipated building of a light reconnaissance tank with a rotating turret and a stronger armament. Such tank was meant to replace the tankettes in the future. That is why in September 1932 the 4-ton light tank, the amphibian tank and a tractor of Carden-Loyd were demonstrated in Poland. As a result, in May 1933 the Chief of the Engineering Department, Col. Tadeusz Kossakowski proposed to buy 5 light reconnaissance tanks Carden-Loyd 4-ton (and one Amphibian Tank) in an evaluation and research purpose, but they were not bought because of a lack of funds. Instead, it was decided to develop similar tanks in Poland, basing on a specification by the BBT BP (the Testing Centre of the Armoured Weapons). The designing of a 4-ton reconnaissance tank and an amphibian tank, sharing the same components, was commissioned the PZInz. (the State Engineering Works) in 1935.
浪漫烛光 www.langmanzg.com


浪漫烛光 www.langmanzg.com

三十年代初期,波兰只能制造一些超轻型坦克(从卡登-洛埃德的超轻型坦克发展).不过,波兰的武器发展计划要求开发一种带有旋转炮塔、火力足够强劲的轻型侦察坦克,波军准备在不久的未来用这种新坦克替换现有的超轻型车辆.于是,1932年9月,卡登和洛埃德的四吨坦克、水陆坦克和履带式拖车到波兰进行演示.作为反馈,波兰工程部门的负责人科萨科夫斯基上校(Col. Tadeusz Kossakowski)在一九三三年五月决定购买五辆四吨坦克和一辆水陆坦克用作进一步论证.不过,由于缺乏经费,这项合同最后泡汤了.但波兰政府确实需要而且决定要拥有这样一种新型坦克.波兰装甲武器测试中心(BBT BP)在1935年命波兰工程部(PZInz.)设计这种四吨侦察坦克和一种水陆坦克.工程部负责人何比奇(Edward Habich)负责设计这两种坦克的工作.
浪漫烛光 www.langmanzg.com


浪漫烛光 www.langmanzg.com

The main designer of both tanks was the chief of the PZInz. Studies Section, engineer Edward Habich. The design and the documentation of the light reconnaissance tank was ready on 16 December 1936. Apart from a general inspiration by the Carden-Loyd layout, the new design was entirely Polish. It utilised some of the world's newest conceptions, and also Polish conceptions, eg. a modern suspension on a torsion bars and reversible periscopes. The engine was Polish-constructed as well.
浪漫烛光 www.langmanzg.com


浪漫烛光 www.langmanzg.com

一九三六年十二月十六日,侦察坦克的设计图纸完成,基于卡登·洛埃德构思而产生出的波兰版全新设计焕发出超前的活力,这些先进设计包括扭杆式悬挂系统和可以收放的潜望镜,引擎也是完全的波兰产品。
浪漫烛光 www.langmanzg.com


浪漫烛光 www.langmanzg.com

Just in January 1937, a plan of armoured weapons' development for 1937-42 years, anticipated the replacement of tankettes with the new light reconnaissance tank, which was given an Army designation 4TP. The program expected building of 480 such tanks for 18 reconnaissance tank companies in infantry divisions and in 4 so-called Motorized Units (OM, the former motorized brigades). The latter ones were expected to contain a 4TP company and a 10TP company.
浪漫烛光 www.langmanzg.com


浪漫烛光 www.langmanzg.com

1937年1月波兰启动了1937-42年度的装甲兵武器发展计划,波军按计划准备用新型侦察坦克替代超轻型坦克,并hl)}}]~且给予其"4TP"的军方编号.波兰计划制造480辆4TP坦克,用于装备步兵师中的18个装甲侦察连和4个独立摩托化部队(类似早先的摩托化旅),后者计划拥有一个4TP装甲连和一个10TP装甲连.
浪漫烛光 www.langmanzg.com


浪漫烛光 www.langmanzg.com



浪漫烛光 www.langmanzg.com


浪漫烛光 www.langmanzg.com

Engine - PZInż.425: petrol, 4-stroke, 6-cylinder inline, power output: 95 HP at 3600 rpm, displacement: 3880 cm³, water-cooled, bore diameter 82mm, stroke 92mm.
浪漫烛光 www.langmanzg.com

Fuel tank - at the rear, capacity about 300 l.
浪漫烛光 www.langmanzg.com

Transmission - dry multi-disc main clutch, mechanical gearbox, 4 forward gears, 1 reverse gear, side clutches with band brakes, side drives.
浪漫烛光 www.langmanzg.com


浪漫烛光 www.langmanzg.com


浪漫烛光 www.langmanzg.com

drive sprocket in the front, idler at the rear. Paired bogey-type suspension. On each side four single roadwheels, rubber-rimmed, blocked in a bogey by two. The roadwheels were suspended on individual suspension arms, sprung by torsion bars. Each pair of wheels in a bogey had one horizontal hydraulical shock absorber. Two return wheels on each side. Single-pin, twin-spur metal tracks, each made of 87 links, link width 260 mm, pitch 90 mm, length of track on the ground 2.1 m, track 1.8 m.
浪漫烛光 www.langmanzg.com


浪漫烛光 www.langmanzg.com


浪漫烛光 www.langmanzg.com

这辆原型车使用PZInż.425汽油引擎驱动(六缸,95马力)、车体后部安有300升的油箱,采用干式复盘离合器和机械变速,有四个前进档和一个倒档;主动轮前置,诱导轮位于后部.车体每侧有四个挂胶负重轮、每两个一组安装在一个扭杆上并且有液压减震器,每侧两个托带轮支撑260毫米宽之单销履带(每条履带有87节履带板).
浪漫烛光 www.langmanzg.com


浪漫烛光 www.langmanzg.com



浪漫烛光 www.langmanzg.com


浪漫烛光 www.langmanzg.com

riveted of armour plates. The crew compartment was on the left, the engine compartment on the right of the hull. The crew was 2: the driver and the commander. The driver's seat was in front of the crew compartment, to his right there was a transmission. Before the driver there was a one-part hatch, that could be lowered onto the front armour plate. The hatch had a small openining vision port, with a vision slot. The driver had also a modern reversible periscope, of Polish design, by R. Gundlach. Above the crew compartment there was a one-man turret, moved to the left, with the commander's seat in it. The turret had a two-leaf door in the rear wall and a hatch on the roof. It was also fitted with a reversible periscope for the commander. The turret traverse was manual.
浪漫烛光 www.langmanzg.com

The serial tanks were to be fitted with a radio
浪漫烛光 www.langmanzg.com


浪漫烛光 www.langmanzg.com

原型车的车体由装甲板铆接而成,乘组员位于左侧战斗室内,发动机位于车体右侧.其中驾驶员坐席安置在战斗室前部、他的右侧就是传动机构,驾驶员面前开设有一扇单页舱门、可以打开向前下方放低到前装甲上,这个舱门上亦安置一个观察口,驾驶员通过其上的一条细缝进行观测.除此之外,驾驶员还可利用一项先进设计-可收缩式潜望镜进行观察(由昆德拉「R.Gundlach」设计).战斗室上安置单人旋转炮塔(位于车体中轴线左侧),车长坐席位于炮塔中,而炮塔后部开有双页活门、顶部也开有舱口.车长必须手动旋转炮塔,而他也拥有一具可收缩式潜望镜.设计组还9!`C=.[T B~  (计<



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